LINCS Interventions for Reading

Whitewater Unified School District

Whitewater, WI


Our philosophy is to identify children early in first grade who are showing signs of potential reading delays and provide early intervention to prevent reading difficulties. We believe that children learn to read and write by reading and writing in authentic text rather than through isolated skill instruction.


Our goal is to have all students reach grade level as assessed using authentic texts such as the Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark system.


Listed below are our reading interventions that we have found effective in reaching or approaching our goal.

  • ERE (Early Reading Empowerment)  (Literacy Lessons Designed for Individuals Part One and Part Two, Marie Clay, Heinemann)

  • The basis of ERE comes from Reading Recovery (Clay, Marie) which is a highly effective short-term intervention of one-to-one tutoring. However, ERE is more flexible with group size, lesson format, and scheduling.  ERE can be used with students at different levels and different books.  Components of the program incorporates leveled emergent text, rereads, word work, writing about reading, and Marie Clay prompts for use of the three part cueing system in a new text. This model identifies each student’s strengths and reinforces those while targeting and developing their weak areas. The goal is to create independence in reading by using the sentence meaning, the sentence structure, and the letters and their sounds in combination to decode unknown words. This approach is a preventive model. It is used to prevent the lowest students in a first grade classroom from falling behind their peers. Students in the model are identified by using the Observation Survey and/or PALS assessment. ERE continues in second and third grade if needed, in the form of Best Practices. (Tier II and Tier III when one on one.) (must be trained in ERE to use)

  • Best Practices - using the ideas from Marie Clay's work (Literacy Lessons Designed for Individuals Part One and Part Two, Marie Clay, Heinemann; Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties The Interactive Strategies Approach,  Donna Scanlon, The Guildford Press; Prompting Guide A Tool for Literacy Teachers, Fountas & Pinnell, Heinemann)

  • Best Practices is an intervention that is used with a small group of students (2-3) using ERE components and cuei    ng prompts as needed for each individual student to guide instruction.  For example good reading instruction always includes writing about the reading.  Also a cut-up sentence, various types of  word work, and comprehension* self- monitoring strategies are used as needed depending on the individual student’s needs. (Tier II and Tier III when one on one or one on two.)

  • ​​LLI (Leveled Literacy Intervention, Fountas & Pinnell, Heinemann, Prompting Guide A Tool for Literacy Teachers, Fountas & Pinnell, Heinemann)

  • LLI consists of a series of planned lessons designed to provide supplementary instruction to children who are finding it difficult to learn to read and write. Teachers first use a systematic assessment to determine children’s instructional reading level, and then form groups of three- four  children who are reading at approximately the same level. Teachers then implement daily 30-minute lessons that incorporate a variety of instructional approaches that address fluency, phonics, comprehension, writing and vocabulary. (Tier II.)

  • Guided Reading Plus

    Read Naturally
    (Candyce Ihnot)

  • Read Naturally is a fluency intervention and/or supplemental program based on current scientific research on reading fluency. Its approach includes the recommended guided oral repeated reading (teacher modeling) and repeated reading (student practice) techniques, accompanied by immediate quantitative feedback. In addition, Read Naturally provides the Reading Fluency Monitor, a system for monitoring student progress and a useful assessment tool for periodic screening, assessment, and progress monitoring. Read Naturally can provide the tools to move the reader stalled at a slow word-by-word reading stage into comfortable fluent reading where attention can be focused on meaning. (Tier II)

  • Read Naturally adapted for targeting decoding and comprehension needs.


    This intervention is best used with students that have decoding skills but need to work on proper phrasing and proper rate. It can be adapted for students with decoding problems by incorporating decoding strategies and not emphasizing speed but rather ease of decoding.


    This intervention can also be used with students that lack comprehension* strategies and self-monitoring techniques. In this case the student’s goal may be to decrease their rate in order to increase their focus on meaning. (Tier II and Tier III when used individually alone or in a group setting.)

  • Phonemic Awareness Pre-K - Primary (Phonemic Awareness, Michael Haggerty, Literacy Resources, Inc.)

  • This is a pre-reading Intervention which includes daily lessons in all versions contain the same ten skills: Letter Naming, Rhyming, Onset Fluency, Blending, Identifying Final and/or Medial Sounds, Segmenting, Adding Phonemes, Deleting Phonemes, Substituting Phonemes, and Language Awareness.  

  • Words Their Way™ (Words Their Way, Donald Bear and Marcia Invernizzi, Pearson Publishing)

  • Words Their Way™ is an approach to phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction for students in kindergarten through high school. The program can be implemented as a core or supplemental curriculum and aims to provide a practical way to study words with students. The purpose of word study (which involves examining, manipulating, comparing, and categorizing words) is to reveal logic and consistencies within written language and to help students achieve mastery in recognizing, spelling, and defining specific words. This should applied with authentic text. (Tier II or Tier III if used one on one)

  • The Comprehension Toolkit* (Comprehension Toolkit by Harvey,  Goudvis  & Wallis, Heinemann Publishing)

  • The Comprehension Toolkit focuses on reading, writing, talking, listening, and investigating, to deepen understanding of nonfiction texts. With a focus on strategic thinking, Toolkit's lessons provide a foundation for developing independent readers and learners. The teaching and learning focus in The Comprehension Toolkit is on comprehension instruction, including:  monitoring comprehension  activating and connecting to background knowledge  asking questions  inferring meaning  determining importance  summarizing and synthesizing. *This intervention would be helpful in combination with Best Practices and Read Naturally.* (Tier II or Tier III if used one on one.)

  • Reciprocal Teaching (See Reciprocal Teaching at Work K-12, Lori D. Oczkus,IRA Publishing )

  • This is an intervention used to improve student’s comprehension using four self-monitoring strategies:  Predicting, Questioning, Clarifying and Summarizing.


  • Other Reading Resources: